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In all type of structures, but mainly in lightweight construction, we can apply the concept of redundancy [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Redundancy_(engineering)]. Redundancy is the duplication of critical components or functions of a system with the intention of increasing reliability of the system, usually in the form of simple duplicity or by adding some components that will be useful only in emergency cases. Membrane structures are a paradigmatic case of such type of structures. …Read More

Safety Factors and Combinations

The WinTess software checks if a structure properly supports the loads applied using the “Ratio” concept. The ratio is a numerical value indicating how close we are or exceed load carrying capacity considering the safety factor of any part of the structure. The value “1” is the maximum limit. If we exceed this value, we understand that part of the structure is undersized. If the value is very small, for …Read More

Pattern Types

Patterning is one of the basic tasks of designing tensile membrane structures. It is also one of three modules of WinTess software shown in top bar. The usual way to transform a warped curved surface in flat strips (patterns) is doing by triangulation. It is the easiest and most used way. In another post in this blog (cross compensation) we already discussed triangulation of patterns. Given that membrane is delivered …Read More

Multi-geodesic lines (1)

The most common method of creating patterns on a membrane involves drawing geodesic lines on the membrane.  Justification of the layout of the geodesic lines is beyond the scope of this text . Although the geodesic lines can be drawn freely to form patterns of any shape and position, it is common that the route of the geodesic lines follow some models determined: Geodesic lines more or less parallel to …Read More

How is wind action treated in WinTess?

Preamble WinTess is designed to be used anywhere in the world. Each country has its own standard of construction, therefore, unless all these rules are introduced into the program, it is impossible to meet each user’s own standards. In this sense WinTess facilitates the possibility to manually modify the calculation of wind actions in order to meet each local standard. Introduction Wind actions in WinTess  are treated as uniform loads …Read More

Corner plates

Tensioned membrane surfaces need a perimeter capable of counteracting the tension of the membrane. To do this, you can opt for different possibilities: A fixed edge. Membrane stresses go to another structure: a building, soil,… A hard edge. The membrane stresses are transferred to a component that can support them. The most common one is a beam of rigid bar: a tube, a beam of wood,… A flexible edge. The …Read More

Torsional stability

It is well known that a structure without any fixed point can not be analyzed. It would be as if floating in a state of weightlessness. Any load that we apply to the structure will move the structure. If the load is constant, it will speed up as per the known equation F = m · a, hence with an acceleration of F / m. That’s why the whole structure …Read More

Cross compensation

The common way of patterning of a tensile membrane is to break down to triangles which are always flat (see the below figure). This series of adjacent triangles is called as pattern. It is obvious that the triangles are defined by the sides, and these are straight segments while the membrane surface is curved (almost always double curvature). Therefore triangles are always smaller than the area representing membrane. The program …Read More

Pneumatic structures and internal pressure

One of the forms of pretensioning a membrane is to overpressure of the interior air. When a membrane is subjected to an air pressure has a certain curvature, this pressure causes the membrane a stress that is proportional to the curvature. So, if it’s a membrane of cylindrical shape, with a certain radius of curvature R, T tension caused by the internal pressure P will be T = P x …Read More

WinTess3 and the DXF files

The DXF (Drawing Exchange Format) are for exchanging files in CAD drawings. It is a format created by Autodesk in order to import and export drawings created with AutoCad from / to other programs. Without being the only interchange format, it is the most known and used, and consequently WinTess3 is it using to interact with other CAD programs. However, the use of this exchange format can generate certain errors …Read More