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# Modulus of elasticity of a membrane

In any structural calculation, we relate the deformation of the elements that make up the structure with the stresses to which they are subjected. This relationship is often expressed normally using the stress-strain graph of such material. So, we know that the more you deform a structural element, more stress it acquires. This relationship stress-strain is the quantified with a value that is inherent to each material, which we call …Read More

# Searching for form

Searching form (“form-finding”) of a tensostructure1 is one of the basic tasks in the design of tensile structures: those made with membranes, cables, belts, etc. Ensuring that the whole structure is in tension is not something immediate since we can easily meet with warped surfaces, wrinkles even at rest under the load of self weight. According to actions which are always in one direction (pneumatic structures, structures with heavy surfaces, …Read More

# Prestressing membrane

In the field of the tensile structures, especially those of membrane but also in the cable nets, it is well known that we should give a pre-stress to membrane. It will provide the structure of a rigidity needed to better withstand the loads and, above all, have some deformations considerably less than those that would have been with the structure without prestress. This pretension can occur, at the time of …Read More

# Offset (interior)

In the article called Offset (exterior) we have seen how we can create fictitious bars (external lines) to simulate the connecting elements (shackles, turnbuckles, … ) and absorb the bulk of the tubes or other structural elements. To do this we get new points that are located outside of the membrane, that is to say, the volume occupied has become larger. However there are many cases in which once obtained …Read More

# Offset (exterior)

When we are looking for a form of a membrane we work with a certain geometry: vertices, cusps, straight edges, arcs, etc. This geometry is determined by a series of points with their coordinates X,Y, Z. Once we have found a form we are interested in, we pass to analysis or patterning. To do that it is often necessary to add the rest of structural elements that are not membrane: …Read More

# Creating a complex model

(Version >= 3.91) If we want to generate a membrane structure like the one shown in the picture below we can do so through the union (mixture) of different simple elements. This is generated, through File menu | New | 2 arches, as a module with 8 meters wide (opening of the arch) and 5 meters in length (distance between arches). We set the height of the central point in …Read More

# Integrated calculation

Introduction It is common to find complex structures in both engineering and architecture. We understand complex structures that are formed by various type of structural elements: walls, bars (pillars and beams), slabs, membranes, cables, etc. To tackle with these structures, regardless of which is done by hand or with the help of computer programs, the structure usually is broken down to simple substructures, i.e. with a single structural type, and …Read More

# Modifying patterns

Sometimes we find a membrane to which you have applied a certain design. Everything has been done successfully, but at some point we would slightly change the pattern. The reasons can be different: the pattern does not fit into the width of the fabric by a little while you have enough membrane to compensate on the next pattern. we wish to avoid the seam between patterns pass through a given …Read More

# Creating a cushion

With the advent of ETFE in the world of lightweight construction, cushion creation has become a common strategy. A cushion is a set of two membranes: one upper and one lower. Therefore, the best way to approach this creation in WinTess3 is to create the two separate membranes and then put them together. Suppose that we want to build a cushion of 4 x 10 m with a height of …Read More

# Non-linear analysis

In the field of analysis of building structures, we tend to use the linear calculation. What does that mean? It means the results (reactions, stresses, displacement and deformation) are proportional to data (actions). So, if we get a 3 mm sag on a steel beam when we apply a load of 50 kN, no need to re-calculate to know what will be the sag of the beam in the case …Read More